Kazakhstan is a massive country with diverse topography. The elevations range from highlands and mountain peaks to extensive lowlands and deserts. There are three significant regions in Kazakhstan, the north with its lowland, the south with its highlands and mountains, and the central region with a semi-desert and desert environment.
The mountainous region in the south belongs to the Tien Shan and is one of the highest mountain ranges in the world. The range includes a topographic ridge, which passes through Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and China. The Altai mountain ranges lie in the northeastern part of the country, and they are much lower than the Tien Shan, with the highest peak at around 4500 meters. There is also the Kazakh Uplands, a massive structural basin, shared by the central and northern regions.
Kazakhstan also has vast lowlands, including the Caspian Depression in the west, Karagiye depression in the north and the Kyzyl Kum Desert in the south. The lowlands contain some of the country's main rivers. The most significant is the Irtysh, which flows from China, through Kazakhstan into Russia's Siberia to join the Ob river. Lake Balkhash is another outstanding feature of the lowland region.
In addition to the unique and diverse landscape, Kazakhstan's climate is relatively extreme. It is arid and hot in the summer, cold in the winter, and experiences earthquakes and severe storms. Despite these challenges, the topography and climate have not hindered Kazakhstan's ever-growing economy and fast-growing population.
Khan Tengri, located on the Kazakh-Kyrgyz border, is the highest point in Kazakhstan. The mountain peak stands at an elevation of 7010 meters.
The lowest point in Kazakhstan is the Karagiye depression, located in the northwestern part of the country. It lies at an elevation of around 132 meters below sea level.
Kazakhstan's topography shares similarities with other central Asian countries like Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. These countries also have high mountain ranges, low-lying deserts, and vast steppes.
See here a list of 10 cities in Kazakhstan and their elevation above sea level.